Benign odontogenic tumors In 2017, the 4th edition of WHO classification of head and neck made various changes in the benign odontogenic tumors of jaw and the classification was made simpler than the previous one being used. Changes made in 2017 WHO classification: Previously in 2005 classification the benign odontogenic tumors were divided [...]
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Cysts of Jaw They are divided into two main categories odontogenic cysts Non-odontogenic cysts The cysts are mainly lined by nonkeratinized squamous epithelial lining and lack specific histological features. They are mainly named according to their location and radiological findings but the histopathological examination is get done for confirmation of the diagnosis to be [...]
Lung adenocarcinoma The pulmonary neoplasms including the benign and malignant tumors were subjected to changes in the 2015 World Health Organiztion classification. The use of immunohistochemistry and genetics was emphasized to be used in classification. Some of the tumors were reclassified, renamed or grouping was changed. Adenocarcinoma was subjected to majority of changes as [...]
Granulomatous diseases of lung Necrotizing lesions: Tuberculosis Necrotizing sarcoidal granulomatosis Non-necrotizing lesions: Sarcoidosis Pneumonitis Fungal infections Eosinophilic granulomatous polyangitis Polyangitis with granulomatosis Tuberculosis Etiology: Infectious disease caused by mycobacterium Tuberculosis. The pulmonary form occurs by inhalation of droplets containing organisms. The nonpulmonary form most often caused by ingestion of infected milk. Types of tuberculosis: [...]
Pakistan facing Coronavirus pandemic Pakistan is facing pandemic of Coronavirus sprouting as an epidemic in Wuhan, China in December 2019. Background: Coronavirus is now affecting many countries world-wide with a variable number of statistics of aymptomatic, morbidity as well as mortality levels. The situation is more grave in countries like Italy [...]
Coronavirus self-isolation or complete lockdown in developing countries Background: Coronavirus infection, now a pandemic,basically started as an epidemic from the city Wuhan, China. It is a respiratory virus with comparatively larger size that makes it settle down instead of travelling through the air. Thus it is transmitted more through the contact with the [...]
Smoking associated lung diseases Pulmonary Langherhans cell histiocytosis: Clinical features: Young adult smokers around 20-40 years Involves single site or may be multicentric involving other organs at the same time or progressively Lung involvement is in more than 50% Bone, skin, lymph nodes, pituitary gland and other areas are also involves Etiology: Unknown but association [...]
SMOKING RELATED LUNG DISEASES: In addition to the cancers of lung that are caused by smoking, there are numerous other benign smoking related lung diseases. These can be divided into restrictive and obstructive lung diseases. Restrictive or interstitial lung diseases: These include Respiratory bronchiolitis, Respiratory bronchiolitis-interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), Desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP) and [...]
Coronavirus, Be Aware And Spread Awareness Introduction With the advancements and changes in life styles, technologies, eating habits and lot more, the diseases attacking the mankind have also changed their trends. There was a time when bacterial infections were more prevailing and were the main cause of the mortalities but then came the magical antibiotics [...]
Painless enlargement of thyroid Non-neoplastic Neoplastic Hashimoto’s thyroiditis Papillary carcinoma Iodine deficiency goiter Follicular carcinoma Drugs Medullary carcinoma Dyshormogenic goiter Anaplastic carcinoma Reidel’s thyroiditis Poorly differentiated carcinoma Diffuse toxic nodular goiter Follicular adenoma Painless thyroiditis Painful enlargements of thyroid: 1.Acute infectious thyroiditis 2.Granulomatous thyroiditis Thyroid lesions in children Developmental: Lingual thyroid Thyroglossal duct Pyramidal [...]