Salivary gland; Non-neoplastic lesions There are three major salivary glands; parotid, submandibular and sublingual. There are innumerable minor salivary glands. These glands can be involved by neoplastic as well as non-neoplastic lesions including inflammation, radiation induced and related to obstruction Sialolithiasis: Cause: obstruction of orifices of salivary gland, may be due to impacted food debris [...]
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Benign tumors of salivary glands: The benign tumors of salivary gland most often appear in fifth to seventh decades and come into attention due to their rapid growth. Pleomorphic Adenoma: These are benign tumors of salivary gland tha consist of mixture of ductal (epithelial) and myoepithelial cells showing both epithelial and mesenchymal [...]
Medullary carcinoma of thyroid: It is a rare tumor of thyroid constituting of less than 10% of thyroid tumors. These are neuroendocrine tumors of thyroid derived from parafollicular cells of thyroid which are also called as C cells. Like the normal C cells the medullary carcinomas also secrete Calcitonin. Measurement of levels of calcitonin helps [...]
Thyroid carcinoma other than papillary carcinoma Papillary carcinoma being the most common one constituting 85% of all thyroid cancers is usually the one discussed in detail. But the other tumors occurring in thyroid gland carry an equal importance and thus discussed here. Follicular carcinoma: It is the second common carcinoma of thyroid constituting about 5-15%. [...]
Screen Dependency Syndrome gadgets can ruin our lives Introduction: Screens, may it be a television, a smart phone, tablet, pc or a video game, have become a major part of our daily routine, not only limited to the adults but at the level of infancy as well. Availability of increasing variety of apps and business [...]
Neoplastic lesions of thyroid There are some clinical criterias that provide clues to nature of a thyroid nodule. Solitary nodules: They are more likely to be neoplastic than the multiple nodules Nodules in young patients tend to be neoplastic as compared to the elderly patients Nodules in males are more likely to be neoplastic [...]
Non-Neoplastic Lesions of Thyroid Hypothyroidism Primary causes: Congenital causes: Genetic defects in thyroid development ( FOXF1, TSH receptor mutations) Thyroid hormone resistance syndrome (THRB mutations) Congenital biosynthetic defect (dyshormogenetic goiter) Thyroid agenesis Thyroid hypoplasia Iatrogenic: Drugs (lithium, iodides, aminosalicylic acid) Postablative Radioiodine therapy External radiation Surgery Autoimmune: Hashimoto’s thyroiditis Others: Iodine deficiency Secondary [...]
Benign breast lesions Inflammatory lesions of breast: Acute mastitis Lactiferous duct fistula Fat necrosis Diabetic mastopathy Silicon mastopathy Duct ectasia (periductal mastitis) Squmaous metaplasia Granulomatous mastitis Fat necrosis: Painless palpable mass. Skin thickening or retraction. Caused usually due to trauma Necrotic fat surrounded by inflammatory cells and multinucleated giant cells Hemosidern laden [...]
Breast lesions: an overview Differences in ADH, UDH and DCIS Features UDH ADH DCIS 1.Architecture a. pattern Varied Same as of DCIS Recognized patterns b. spaces Irregular, slit-like Regular, round and punched out Regular, round and punched out c. bridges Long axis of nuclei parallel to bridge Long axis of nuclei haphazard or at [...]
Obesity: a disease or a habit Obesity is one of the important cause of mortality and morbidity of this modern world. It is most prevalent in the developed countries and rapidly growing problem of the developing countries. Definition: Obesity is defined as accumulation of adipose tissue in the body that is sufficient enough to impair [...]